Friday, April 20, 2012
Tuesday, April 10, 2012
Michael O. Riley is a collector, binder and book restorer who has analyzed and worked on a large number of copies of the Hill editions of the Oz books. In his book, A Bookbinder’s Analysis of the first Edition of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (2011), he observes the Wizard of Oz (1904) printed book, and raises the question whether there could be some pattern to the manufacture of “mixed” copies, and what is the legitimate representation of the book at the point of production. There is no original “first edition” copy, so it is hard to compare additional copies to the real thing. How can a book collector determine whether his/her copy of the Oz book is closest to the original edition?
Since the Wizard of Oz was published before Land of Oz, it can be useful to understand the methods of binding, that may have been used to manufacture the rest of the series of Oz books. In assuming that the same book binding methods were used for the first edition of The Wizard of Oz book as for the sequel, published four years later, binding, pagination, collation, and rubrication are the same. The research that has been done by Reilly helps identify how both Wizard of Oz and Land of Oz books were produced in the early 1900s.
Friday, April 6, 2012
As mentioned, Morris influenced the way books were printed and designed in Europe and America in the early 1900s. In the work, A Note by William Morris on his Aims in Founding the Kelmscott Press, William Morris recounts his printing techniques beginning with inspiration then his printing process.
"I have always been a great admirer of the calligraphy of the Middle Ages, and of the earlier printing which took its place. As to the fifteenth century books, I had noticed that they were always beautiful by force of the mere typography, even without the added ornament, which which many of them as so lavishly supplied. And it was the essence of my undertaking to produce books which it would be a pleasure to look upon as pieces of printing and arrangement of type. I had to consider chiefly the following things: the paper, the form of the type, the relative spacing of the letters, the words, and the lines, & lastly the position of the printed matter on the page. It was a matter of course that I should consider it necessary that the paper should be hand-made, both for the sake of durability and appearance" (Cockerell, p. 4).
Morris came to several conclusions when deciding how he would print, and the following points is an outline of his printing methods:
1.) Hand-made paper: wholly of linen ( In Morris' day hand-made papers were made of cotton)
2.) Hard linen that is well sized, and laid, not woven
3.) Type: Roman type
5.) Position of printed matter
The Roman type does not have any embellishments, which would make the wording easier to read. In comparing roman type to modern type, Morris believed that the letter shape should be solid, without the thickening and thinking of the line, and not compressed laterally,because it is difficult to read that way.
An example of the perfect Roman type is taken from Venetian printer of the fifteenth century: Nicholas Jenson (1470-1476). Below is Jenson's work from Laertius, printed in Venice, 1475 (Britannica).
As Morris practiced writing the Roman script, he noticed that his lower-case appeared more Gothic than Jenson's.In this case, Morris decided to design a new type that would make Gothic text more readable, then it had been before. Inspired by Chaucer's double columned book, Morris created a smaller-sized Gothic type of Pica size.Morris type was designed in 1892, and he named it the Golden type (13). The font consisted of eighty--one designs, including stops, figures and tied letters. Each type was punched out, and an retired master-printer named William Bowden acted as compositor & pressman. Below is a picture of Morris' Golden Type.
For spacing, the face of the letter should be level with the body, as to avoid white spaces between the letters. The spaces between the words should be no more than is necessary to distinguish the division into words. In other words, the spaces on all sides should be equal.
The position of the print on the page should always leave the inner margin the narrowest, the top wider, the outside edge wider still, and the bottom widest of all. This is a medieval rule used by medieval books. Morris' modern printers disagree with the idea to leave margin space because they believe that "the unit of a book is not one page, but a pair of pages" ( Cockerell, p.8) The idea of spacing and position are important features of a book, because the positioning of words can make the book more readable, or appealing to the eye.
There are various sizes of illustrations on the left and right pages of the book, including: small black and white pictures integrated into the paragraphs, small vignettes that introduce each new chapter, full black-and white plate picture outlined with a black boarder, and 16 colored plates with a black border. The idea of having color added to each page was a new concept, and color was very expensive to print. Therefore, only a few plates are in color. Baum's dream was to have the entire book have added color for every illustration. Below are a few examples of the color plates with the thick black border. Underneath each large picture (color, and black and white) is the title of the scene.
The Woggle-Bug and Ozma are new characters introduced in The Land of Oz. The Woggle-Bug is an insect that enjoys puns. Ozma is the rightful ruler of Oz, who was hidden by the Wizard of Oz (See title post).
All of the drawings were done in pen and ink.
American Fairy Tales 1901